Voltage Multipliers and the Cockcroft-Walton generator. Jason Merritt and Sam Asare. 1. Background. Voltage multipliers are circuits – typically consisting of. Abstract—This paper primarily describes a Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier circuit. The objective of the project is to design a voltage multiplier which should. 31 Jul Even though the half-wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (H-W C-W VM) is one of the most common ac-dc step-up topologies, VM.

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Therefore, if the stress on components of VM 1 is twice of that for VM 2votlage components count we can consider capacitors and diodes of VM 2 as basic components and multiply the number of capacitors of VM 1 by four and its diodes by two, to find out equivalent number of similar components. It means there are two choices: Views Read Edit View history. For substantial loads, the charge on the capacitors is partially depleted, and the output voltage drops according to the output current divided by the capacitance.

As mentioned earlier the main features of a symmetrical voltage multiplier are lower voltage ripple and higher voltage level due to the complementary action of voptage half section of the multiplier. In fact, the voltage stress on components can be used as a factor to evaluate the effective number voltsge components and consequently the price of VMs.

Therefore this topology can be used in portable and handheld apparatuses and applications with moderate output voltage, where grounding of load is not nessesary [ 78 ]. To exceed the restriction of 9 and also to decrease the output voltage ripple value, several configurations have been proposed vootage are the subject of next section.

The number of capacitors and diodes in first and second row shows the actual number of components, while base-cap wslton and base-diode number show the number of components with regard to voltage stress as discussed in simulation section. Capacitors are in range of 1. CW multipliers are also found, with a higher number of stages, in laser systems, high-voltage power supplies, X-ray systems, LCD backlightingtraveling-wave tube amplifiers, ion pumpselectrostatic systems, air ionisersparticle acceleratorscopy machinesscientific instrumentation, oscilloscopestelevision sets and cathode ray tubeselectroshock weaponsbug zappers and many other applications that use high-voltage DC.

Therefore the ripple still exists; however, its magnitude decreases greatly.

Using only capacitors and diodes, these voltage multipliers can step up relatively low voltages multipier extremely high values, while at the same time being far lighter and cheaper than transformers. It is shown that, due to the application, sometimes a simple and not very famous topology is more effective than a famous one.

## Cockcroft–Walton generator

In this scheme, only one source one secondary winding is needed and due to the opposite direction of charge and discharge in positive and negative sections, output voltage ripple of each section compensates those of the other.

It consists of two capacitor columns, namely, oscillating and smoothening columns. However, in mobile apparatus and some low voltage applications, they still can be used. In this case, the ripple is: Its construction is also simple and easy to implement [ 10 ]. Reduction of error produced by nonequal value of capacitors when we compare the topologies was the reason of such selection.

It is shown that the ripple in symmetrical case compared to the original VM can be reduced approximately by the following formula [ 20 ]: All the capacitors are charged to a voltage of 2 V pexcept for C1which is charged to V p. However, it did not get attention for a long time until Cockcroft and Walton performed their experiment using this circuit in [ 12 ]. Then, in topologies that use one voltage source, series connection of secondary windings could be used. So to have same level of voltage scaling, the amplitude of input voltage which usually is the secondary of a transformer should be twice of that in conventional voltage multiplier.

In Figure 11 variations of VMs are shown. In fact, in each application based on the level of output voltage and therefore components price, with similar method used in Table 1it is possible to compare the VMs and, therefore, to choose which of them is suitable for the proposed application. To compensate this effect the value of should be increased. Taken from the High Power Microwave Transmitters report by North, here is a three phase multiplier circuit.

These effects can be partially compensated by increasing the capacitance in the lower stages, by increasing the frequency of the input power and by using an AC power source with a square or triangular waveform. To understand the circuit operation, see the diagram of the two-stage version at right. The first stage of the proposed topology does not have coupling capacitors; therefore, it saves two high voltage capacitors. Some terms used in the table should be explained. The author has not discussed this matter [ 1 ].

CW multipliers are typically used to develop higher voltages for relatively low-current applications, such as bias voltages ranging from tens or hundreds of volts to millions of volts for high-energy physics experiments or lightning safety testing. In some applications, this is an advantage. Assume the circuit is powered by an alternating voltage V i with a peak value of V pand initially the capacitors are uncharged.

This is the main reason of lower level of ripple in all symmetrical and multiphase versions of voltage multipliers. One can also tap the output from any stage, like in a multitapped transformer.

Simultaneously transfers charge to the load and to.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Schematic circuit of a basic 4-stage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier. It is worth mentioning that a proper cockfroft of nonequal value capacitors will result in better response compared to the classical case [ 19 ]. Furthermore, with this method, it is possible to understand if a VM has better performance compared to others and how much it costs for designer.

Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipmentvol. Mortazawi for their help in preparing experimental tests.

### A Comparative Study of Symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton Voltage Multipliers

The matrix converter generates an adjustable frequency and adjustable-amplitude current, which is injected into the CWVM to regulate the dc output voltage and smooth its ripple. Let be the charge transferred from to the load per cycle with a ripple voltage at capacitor [ 15 — 17 ]: Therefore, and charge up to and instead of andrespectively.

Moreover from these relations it is also clear that increasing number of stages will increase these drop walon and ripple amplitude. In this section, by Saber Synopsys software, simulation results of previously discussed VMs are compared.

Nonideality of the components that are considered in simulations is ESR of capacitorsdiodes forward voltage drop 0. For cockctoft, SPNVM with low components count and acceptable characteristics is an attractive choice which should not be ignored in such applications. Input voltage and number of stages are chosen to get almost equal output voltage from all VMs.

A more usual choice when a power supply with high voltage and low current is needed is the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier CWVM.