A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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The following table gives an overview of the numeral system:. It remains, however, when a consonant-initial pronoun is attached: The so-called essive case can convey the meaning “as” and a condition, but also to express direction, the aim of a demand, the transition from one condition to another, the hudrian object in antipassive constructions where the transitive subject receives the absolutive case instead of the ergativeand, in the variety of Nuzialso the dative.

Sumerian, and Hurrian, and seven different scripts were used in Ugarit in this period: Since the s, the Nuzi corpus from the archive of Silwa-tessup has been edited by G. The article is unmarked in the absolutive singular — e. The f of the genitive and dative endings merges with a preceding p or t giving pp and tt respectively, e.

Hurrian language

As has been outlined above, Hurrian transitive verbs normally take a subject in the ergative huerian an object in the absolutive except for the antipassive constructions, where these are replaced by the absolutive and the essive respectively. Please try again later. The earliest Hurrian text fragments consist of lists of names and places from the end of the third millennium BC.


Tense markers are unchanged in the optative. Relative clauseshowever, tend to surround the noun, which means that the noun the relative gfammar modifies stands in the middle of the relative clause.

Starostin see similarities between Hurrian and the Northeast Caucasian languagesand thus place it in the Alarodian family.

Hurrian and the Hurrians – Mark Ronan

Distributive numbers carry the suffix -atee. Another case, the so-called ‘e-case’, is very rare, and carries a genitive or allative meaning. Before the middle of the 2nd millennium bceparts of Hurrian territory were under the control of an Indo-Aryan ruling class, the Mitanniwhose name was incorrectly applied to the Hurrians by early researchers.

By the late Bronze Age, Hurrian seems to have become extinct, except perhaps for remote mountainous areas east of the upper Tigris. Historical background of ancient Anatolia In history of Mesopotamia: The only language close to Hurrian is Urartian, once spoken in what is now the extreme east grammag Turkey.

Hurrian language |

There was also a Hurrian-Akkadian creole, called Nuzispoken in the Mitanni provincial capital of Arrapha. Retrieved from ” https: Another, separate, -t suffix is found in all tenses in transitive sentences — it indicates a 3rd person plural subject.

There are also the grrammar pronouns iya and iye. In the Hurrrian region that centres on Lake Van, Hurrian of the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce was replaced by the related Urartian language in the 1st millennium.

Hurrian grammar and vocabulary are imperfectly understood, though it was clearly an agglutinative language, meaning that words are built up from a sequence of units each expressing a well-defined grammatical meaning. If you prefer to hurgian your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used. Other Hurrian texts have been found in the cities of Urkish Mardin region, c.


The meanings of many such suffixes have yet to be decoded. The preterite and future suffixes also include the suffix -twhich indicates intransitivity, but occurs only in truly intransitive forms, not in antipassive ones; in the present, this suffix never occurs. The enclitic -nna of the third person singular behaves differently from the other pronouns: Hurrian has at its disposal several paradigms for constructing relative clauses. Since the late s, significant progress was made due to the discovery of a Hurrian-Hittite bilingual, edited by E.

The following table outlines the case endings the terms used for some of the more obscure cases vary between different authors. Some scholars, such as I. For example case markers more than one may be attached to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb.

Vowels, just like consonants, can be either long or short. The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian. There is no difference between the form for transitive and intransitive verbs, there being agreement with the subject of the sentence. A third person plural ergative subject was marked with the suffix -it-which, however, unlike the other ergative endings, occurred before instead of after the transitivity vowel: However, this form is only attested in Mitanni and only in the third person.